Lambton Shores Fitzherbert Richard Investment Principles For Actuaries Pdf

ACST8033 Investment and Asset Modelling

A Basic Course in the Theory of Interest and Derivatives

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

A Basic Course in the Theory of Interest and Derivatives. monitoring investment strategies will be covered, including model characteristics and limitations. This subject, in conjunction with ACST4031/8040 and ACST4032/8041, provides the opportunity for exemption from the Part II academic requirements of the Actuaries Institute. Such exemption depends on the grades attained over all three subjects. Mode of Delivery On campus Prerequisites ACST4004P/F, PRINCIPLES FOR INVESTMENT POLICYMAKING NATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDANCE FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS: OPTIONS PROMOTING INVESTMENT IN SDGs: ACTION MENU THE WAY FORWARD. The designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nations concerning the ….

Unit Guide

Principles of finance and investment / by L.G.Whyte. Pub. Investment Principles For Actuaries, View Notes - Lecture 1.pdf from ETC 3420 at Monash University. ETC 4130 Investment and Asset Modelling Mike Callan Ph.D. F.I.A. F.I.A.A. Monash University 26 July 2017 1 / 56 Background Background.

Becoming an Actuary Actuaries have the skills to find pure, honest insights hidden in business data. Insights that enables business decision-making, which can change businesses, industries and even countries. Learn more about what actuaries do, where they work and … This session is jointly organised by the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (IFoA) and the Society of Actuaries of Thailand (SOAT). Video case studies will be selected from the IFoA’s 2019/2020 online content which covers a range of topics under an overarching theme of “A Trusted Profession”.

Investment Principles For Actuaries American Academy of Actuaries 2 www.actuary.org Kong and Australia. In Canada it will become required starting in 2011. Japan is working on a path towards convergence over time. Currently, domestic US SEC registrants are required to use US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as their basis of accounting and are not permitted to use

Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently ment Fitzherbert Investment Principles for Actuaries Fitzherbert and Compound from MAST 1000 at University of Melbourne

The home of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries and the actuarial profession in Canada / Le port d'attache de l'Institut canadien des actuaires et de la profession actuarielle au Canada Practical Investment Management Fitzherbert, Richard Investment Principles for Actuaries, ISBN 978 0 85813 072 2 (Referred to elsewhere in this unit outline as FITZ) Investment Theory Zvi Bodie, Alex Kane & Alan Marcus Investments, ISBN 9780073530703 (Referred to elsewhere in this unit as BKM)

independent investment advice is sought. We note that in the UK trustees are required to seek written advice from a suitably qualified person before preparing or revising a statement of investment principles Actuarial funding advice often employs prudence margins in assumptions. For this An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty (BeAnActuary 2011a).The name of the corresponding field is actuarial science.These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management, and valuation skills (BeAnActuary 2011b).Actuaries provide assessments of financial security systems

the board, the investment committee, the internal investment team and external investment managers including setting an effective delegation matrix. Investment beliefs and philosophy. Describe and critically evaluate approaches to asset allocation. Manage Unit description This unit will focus on investment from an actuarial practitioner's Investment Principles For Actuaries

The unit in which time of investment is measured is called the measure-ment period. The most common measurement period is one year but may be longer or shorter (could be days, months, years, decades, etc.). Example 1.1 Which of the following may t the de nition … The unit in which time of investment is measured is called the measure-ment period. The most common measurement period is one year but may be longer or shorter (could be days, months, years, decades, etc.). Example 1.1 Which of the following may t the de nition …

Practice Note on Life Principle-Based Reserves Under VM-20 . February 2014 . Developed by the Life Principle-Based Approach Practice Note Work Group of the American Academy of Actuaries . The American Academy of Actuaries is a professional association with over 17,500 members, whose mission is to assist public policymakers by providing leadership, Just in time for the start of the 2020 election cycle, the January Actuarial Update includes the Academy’s “2020 Making Issues Count” election guides, offering voters information on key issues of interest including health insurance, Social Security, and more. Also in the issue: The Actuaries Climate Risk Index provides results associating dollar estimates of property losses in the United

Over 480 graduates have qualified as actuaries since the programme began in 1983. An actuary is a professional who applies analytical, statistical, and mathematical skills to financial and business problems. This is especially valuable when facing problems involving uncertain future events or financial risks in insurance, retirement, investments, and risk management environments. The Actuarial Principles of Investment . offices would be insolvent in a few weeks. The rate of interest varied inversely with the safety of investment and the difficulty lay in determining the minimum degree of security which could be accepted.’ Similar criticisms were advanced by F. B. Swift.

The Actuarial Principles of Investment . offices would be insolvent in a few weeks. The rate of interest varied inversely with the safety of investment and the difficulty lay in determining the minimum degree of security which could be accepted.’ Similar criticisms were advanced by F. B. Swift. Actuaries, Pension Funds and Investment 127 investment management skills. (To anticipate a detailed point, it is immaterial whether time-weighted or money-weighted returns are used.) 2.4 Actuaries familiar with these issues will already see a glimmer of something

advice that actuaries give to companies regarding strategic and product decisions. This can be a factor in decisions around granularity of assumption reviews, as opposed to the actuary’s needs for regulatory or financial reporting requirements. The key stages of the process and the structure of … Richard Fitzherbert is the author of Bluprint for investment A long term contrarian approach (3.00 avg rating, 1 rating, 0 reviews) and Investment princi...

Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

Advice about seeking additional help to develop your writing or research skills from ETC 3420 at Monash University The Actuarial Principles of Investment . offices would be insolvent in a few weeks. The rate of interest varied inversely with the safety of investment and the difficulty lay in determining the minimum degree of security which could be accepted.’ Similar criticisms were advanced by F. B. Swift.

Response to the Pensions Authority consultation on. Investment and Asset Modeling S2 Day 2013 Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies Contents General Information 2 Learning Outcomes 3 Assessment Tasks 3 Delivery and Resources 6 Policies and Procedures 7 Graduate Capabilities 8 Research and Practice 11 Macquarie University has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the information in this publication is accurate and up-to-date. …, PRINCIPLES FOR INVESTMENT POLICYMAKING NATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDANCE FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS: OPTIONS PROMOTING INVESTMENT IN SDGs: ACTION MENU THE WAY FORWARD. The designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nations concerning the ….

ment Fitzherbert Investment Principles for Actuaries

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

A Basic Course in the Theory of Interest and Derivatives. Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently, Becoming an Actuary Actuaries have the skills to find pure, honest insights hidden in business data. Insights that enables business decision-making, which can change businesses, industries and even countries. Learn more about what actuaries do, where they work and ….

ACTUARIES PENSION FUNDS AND INVESTMENT

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

ACST4033/ACST8033 Actuarial Control Cycle B. advice that actuaries give to companies regarding strategic and product decisions. This can be a factor in decisions around granularity of assumption reviews, as opposed to the actuary’s needs for regulatory or financial reporting requirements. The key stages of the process and the structure of … The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (IFoA) is the UK's only chartered professional body dedicated to educating, developing and regulating actuaries based both in the UK and internationally..

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf


Just in time for the start of the 2020 election cycle, the January Actuarial Update includes the Academy’s “2020 Making Issues Count” election guides, offering voters information on key issues of interest including health insurance, Social Security, and more. Also in the issue: The Actuaries Climate Risk Index provides results associating dollar estimates of property losses in the United American Academy of Actuaries 2 www.actuary.org Kong and Australia. In Canada it will become required starting in 2011. Japan is working on a path towards convergence over time. Currently, domestic US SEC registrants are required to use US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as their basis of accounting and are not permitted to use

Richard Fitzherbert is the author of Bluprint for investment A long term contrarian approach (3.00 avg rating, 1 rating, 0 reviews) and Investment princi... Investment and Asset Modeling S2 Day 2013 Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies Contents General Information 2 Learning Outcomes 3 Assessment Tasks 3 Delivery and Resources 6 Policies and Procedures 7 Graduate Capabilities 8 Research and Practice 11 Macquarie University has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the information in this publication is accurate and up-to-date. …

Subject Overview: Analysis of investment portfolios and asset classes from the perspective of an appointed actuary, with a view to identifying assets that suit the requirements of a variety of general insurance, life insurance, superannuation and other defined benefit liabilities. of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty (BeAnActuary 2011a).The name of the corresponding field is actuarial science.These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management, and valuation skills (BeAnActuary 2011b).Actuaries provide assessments of financial security systems of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

advice that actuaries give to companies regarding strategic and product decisions. This can be a factor in decisions around granularity of assumption reviews, as opposed to the actuary’s needs for regulatory or financial reporting requirements. The key stages of the process and the structure of … independent investment advice is sought. We note that in the UK trustees are required to seek written advice from a suitably qualified person before preparing or revising a statement of investment principles Actuarial funding advice often employs prudence margins in assumptions. For this

Investment principles for actuaries. [Richard Fitzherbert; Institute of Actuaries of Australia.] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Find items in libraries near you. Advanced Search Find a Library. Cite/Export. Cite/Export. Copy a The home of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries and the actuarial profession in Canada / Le port d'attache de l'Institut canadien des actuaires et de la profession actuarielle au Canada

Investment Principles For Actuaries of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

Homepage American Academy of Actuaries

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

Actuaries Institute online book shop Actuaries Institute. PRINCIPLES FOR INVESTMENT POLICYMAKING NATIONAL INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDANCE FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS: OPTIONS PROMOTING INVESTMENT IN SDGs: ACTION MENU THE WAY FORWARD. The designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nations concerning the …, CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 7 total savings after 15 years amount to L55 S15, which yields an individual share equal to L55 S15 L70 (1.3) to each of the L70 survivors if L70 >0. By the so-called law of large numbers, the proportion of survivors L70=L55 tends to the individual survival probability 0:75 as the number of participants L55 tends to in nity. Therefore, as the.

Investment Principles For Actuaries Educated Investor

A Basic Course in the Theory of Interest and Derivatives. An actuary takes the plan’s pension formula and determines how to reflect the cost of the plan over each participant’s working lifetime. There are three basic principles used: • Active participants earn new benefits each year. Actuaries call that the normal cost. The normal, monitoring investment strategies will be covered, including model characteristics and limitations. This subject, in conjunction with ACST4031/8040 and ACST4032/8041, provides the opportunity for exemption from the Part II academic requirements of the Actuaries Institute. Such exemption depends on the grades attained over all three subjects. Mode of Delivery On campus Prerequisites ACST4004P/F.

Investment Principles For Actuaries of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

An actuary takes the plan’s pension formula and determines how to reflect the cost of the plan over each participant’s working lifetime. There are three basic principles used: • Active participants earn new benefits each year. Actuaries call that the normal cost. The normal The Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (IFoA) is the UK's only chartered professional body dedicated to educating, developing and regulating actuaries based both in the UK and internationally.

Actuaries, Pension Funds and Investment 127 investment management skills. (To anticipate a detailed point, it is immaterial whether time-weighted or money-weighted returns are used.) 2.4 Actuaries familiar with these issues will already see a glimmer of something Investment and Asset Modeling S2 Day 2013 Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies Contents General Information 2 Learning Outcomes 3 Assessment Tasks 3 Delivery and Resources 6 Policies and Procedures 7 Graduate Capabilities 8 Research and Practice 11 Macquarie University has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the information in this publication is accurate and up-to-date. …

IFRS 17 – Insurance Contacts Technical summary of IFRS 17 Objective IFRS 17 Insurance contracts establishes the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of Insurance contracts within the scope of the Standard. The objective of IFRS 17 is to ensure that an entity provides relevant information that faithfully represents those Richard Fitzherbert proposes that the teaching of investment principles be approached from a historical rather than a mathematical perspective. Paper presented at the Actuarial Education and Research Symposium, The University of Melbourne 26th November 2010 No.1 (1993) onwards available online. Download as PDF.

independent investment advice is sought. We note that in the UK trustees are required to seek written advice from a suitably qualified person before preparing or revising a statement of investment principles Actuarial funding advice often employs prudence margins in assumptions. For this The home of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries and the actuarial profession in Canada / Le port d'attache de l'Institut canadien des actuaires et de la profession actuarielle au Canada

Subject Overview: This subject covers analysis of investment portfolios and asset classes from the perspective of an appointed actuary, with a view to identifying assets that suit the requirements of a variety of general insurance, life insurance, superannuation and other defined benefit liabilities. Author FitzHerbert, Richard Subjects Investment - Textbooks.; Actuaries.; Textbooks. Audience Specialized Summary Although written to address the needs of actuaries, the text contains very few formulae and deals mainly with underlying investment principles and implicit assumptions rather than the mathematical side of finance.

Investment principles for actuaries. [Richard Fitzherbert; Institute of Actuaries of Australia.] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Find items in libraries near you. Advanced Search Find a Library. Cite/Export. Cite/Export. Copy a Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently

Practice Note on Life Principle-Based Reserves Under VM-20 . February 2014 . Developed by the Life Principle-Based Approach Practice Note Work Group of the American Academy of Actuaries . The American Academy of Actuaries is a professional association with over 17,500 members, whose mission is to assist public policymakers by providing leadership, Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently

Author FitzHerbert, Richard Subjects Investment - Textbooks.; Actuaries.; Textbooks. Audience Specialized Summary Although written to address the needs of actuaries, the text contains very few formulae and deals mainly with underlying investment principles and implicit assumptions rather than the mathematical side of finance. Practical Investment Management Fitzherbert, Richard Investment Principles for Actuaries, ISBN 978 0 85813 072 2 (Referred to elsewhere in this unit outline as FITZ) Investment Theory Zvi Bodie, Alex Kane & Alan Marcus Investments, ISBN 9780073530703 (Referred to elsewhere in this unit as BKM)

Investment and Asset Modeling S2 Day 2013 Applied Finance and Actuarial Studies Contents General Information 2 Learning Outcomes 3 Assessment Tasks 3 Delivery and Resources 6 Policies and Procedures 7 Graduate Capabilities 8 Research and Practice 11 Macquarie University has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the information in this publication is accurate and up-to-date. … Author FitzHerbert, Richard Subjects Investment - Textbooks.; Actuaries.; Textbooks. Audience Specialized Summary Although written to address the needs of actuaries, the text contains very few formulae and deals mainly with underlying investment principles and implicit assumptions rather than the mathematical side of finance.

Investment and Asset Modelling This course covers investment and asset modelling for the purpose of liability portfolio management in the financial services industry, with a specific focus on life insurers, general insurers and superannuation funds. The course will cover development of investment for Actuaries Chapter 2 Annuities. Learning Objectives 1. Annuity-immediate and annuity-due 2. Present and future values of annuities 3. Perpetuities and deferred annuities 4. Other accumulation methods 5. Payment periods and compounding periods 6. Varying annuities 2. 2.1 Annuity-Immediate • Consider an annuity with payments of 1 unit each, made at the end of every year for n years

Principles of finance and investment. Camb : Camb. U.P. MLA Citation. Whyte, Lewis G. Principles of finance and investment / by L.G.Whyte. Pub. for the Institute of Actuaries and the Faculty of Actuaries Camb. U.P Camb 1949. Australian/Harvard Citation. Whyte, Lewis G. 1949, Principles of finance and CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 7 total savings after 15 years amount to L55 S15, which yields an individual share equal to L55 S15 L70 (1.3) to each of the L70 survivors if L70 >0. By the so-called law of large numbers, the proportion of survivors L70=L55 tends to the individual survival probability 0:75 as the number of participants L55 tends to in nity. Therefore, as the

Actuarial Education and Profession. Becoming an Actuary Actuaries have the skills to find pure, honest insights hidden in business data. Insights that enables business decision-making, which can change businesses, industries and even countries. Learn more about what actuaries do, where they work and …, for Actuaries Chapter 1 Interest Accumulation and Time Value of Money 1. Learning Objectives 1. Basic principles in calculation of interest accumulation 2. Simple and compound interest 3. Frequency of compounding 4. Effective rate of interest 5. Rate of discount 6. Present and future values of a single payment 2. 1.1 Accumulation Function and Amount Function • The sum of money borrowed is.

Basic Life Insurance Mathematics

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

Flagship event of the Actuaries Institute. CIII Catalogue, Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions. More generally, actuaries apply rigorous mathematics to model matters of uncertainty. Actuaries are professionals trained in this discipline. In many countries, actuaries must demonstrate their competence by passing a series of.

Home Actuaries Institute. This session is jointly organised by the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (IFoA) and the Society of Actuaries of Thailand (SOAT). Video case studies will be selected from the IFoA’s 2019/2020 online content which covers a range of topics under an overarching theme of “A Trusted Profession”., independent investment advice is sought. We note that in the UK trustees are required to seek written advice from a suitably qualified person before preparing or revising a statement of investment principles Actuarial funding advice often employs prudence margins in assumptions. For this.

Actuary Wikipedia

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

FAP Fundamentals of Actuarial Practice SOA. Author FitzHerbert, Richard Subjects Investment - Textbooks.; Actuaries.; Textbooks. Audience Specialized Summary Although written to address the needs of actuaries, the text contains very few formulae and deals mainly with underlying investment principles and implicit assumptions rather than the mathematical side of finance. Just in time for the start of the 2020 election cycle, the January Actuarial Update includes the Academy’s “2020 Making Issues Count” election guides, offering voters information on key issues of interest including health insurance, Social Security, and more. Also in the issue: The Actuaries Climate Risk Index provides results associating dollar estimates of property losses in the United.

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf


Investment Principles For Actuaries the board, the investment committee, the internal investment team and external investment managers including setting an effective delegation matrix. Investment beliefs and philosophy. Describe and critically evaluate approaches to asset allocation. Manage Unit description This unit will focus on investment from an actuarial practitioner's

of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions. More generally, actuaries apply rigorous mathematics to model matters of uncertainty. Actuaries are professionals trained in this discipline. In many countries, actuaries must demonstrate their competence by passing a series of

Investment Principles For Actuaries Practice Note on Life Principle-Based Reserves Under VM-20 . February 2014 . Developed by the Life Principle-Based Approach Practice Note Work Group of the American Academy of Actuaries . The American Academy of Actuaries is a professional association with over 17,500 members, whose mission is to assist public policymakers by providing leadership,

for Actuaries Chapter 1 Interest Accumulation and Time Value of Money 1. Learning Objectives 1. Basic principles in calculation of interest accumulation 2. Simple and compound interest 3. Frequency of compounding 4. Effective rate of interest 5. Rate of discount 6. Present and future values of a single payment 2. 1.1 Accumulation Function and Amount Function • The sum of money borrowed is Business, the Institute of Directors, the Investment Association, Mark Goyder, and the Trades Union Congress. Under the Chairman’s leadership, the Coalition Group has developed the Wates Corporate Governance Principles for Large Private Companies (Wates Principles) following an extensive work programme and public

Becoming an Actuary Actuaries have the skills to find pure, honest insights hidden in business data. Insights that enables business decision-making, which can change businesses, industries and even countries. Learn more about what actuaries do, where they work and … monitoring investment strategies will be covered, including model characteristics and limitations. This subject, in conjunction with ACST4031/8040 and ACST4032/8041, provides the opportunity for exemption from the Part II academic requirements of the Actuaries Institute. Such exemption depends on the grades attained over all three subjects. Mode of Delivery On campus Prerequisites ACST4004P/F

ment Fitzherbert Investment Principles for Actuaries Fitzherbert and Compound from MAST 1000 at University of Melbourne of: valuation methods and principles, data requirements and sources, assumptions and limitations of the valuation models. 3. Develop an understanding of the major economic and financial theories relevant to investment including the capital asset pricing model, multifactor pricing models, efficient markets hypothesis and ideas from behavioural

Fitzherbert richard investment principles for actuaries pdf

Discuss the practical implementation of investment strategy The full, detailed syllabus for this component of the Part II course is included at the end of this document. Research-Led Teaching : This course covers the relevant parts of the Actuaries Institute Part II syllabus. It will be informed by practical examples and case studies of relevance to professional and research issues currently Investment Principles For Actuaries

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